MUT▲TED N▲TURE from Bipolar Spider on Vimeo.
Experimental piece with a few pets.
No reptiles were harmed, just me.
Canon 24-105 f4 L
Canon 100 f2.8 Macro L
GoPro Hero 3
Pictures 1, 2, 3. Anura (frogs) skulls.
Picture 4. Testudines (turtle) skull.
Due to their inherent flexibility, snakes have very loosely joined skulls that occassionally require assembly. This is an eastern diamondback rattlesnake: Crotalus adamanteus.
The venom contains a thrombin-like enzyme, “crotalase”, capable of clotting fibrinogen, leading to the secondary activation of plasminogen from endothelial cells. Although the venom does not activate platelets, the production of fibrin strands can result in a reduced platelet count, as well as the hemolysis of red blood cells. Nevertheless, the venom does exhibit high hemorrhagic activity. It also contains a low-molecular-weight basic peptide that impedes neuromuscular transmission and can lead to cardiac failure. This peptide is similar to crotamine from C. durissus terrificus, and makes up 2-8% of the protein found in the venom. In general, the venom can be described as highly necrotizing, mildly proteolytic and containing a large phosphodiesterase fraction. It stimulates the release of bradykinin that can result in severe pain, as well as profound, transient hypotension.
The snake’s hemotoxic venom itself is not considered particularly toxic based on tests conducted in mice. In mice, the LD50 is 0.8–5.0 mg/kg IV, 2.0 mg/kg IP and 5.0–6.0 mg/kg SC. However, the venom glands are enormous and each bite produces the largest quantities of venom of any venomous skane. Yield is probably related to body weight, as opposed to milking interval. Brown (1973) gives a venom yield range of 200–1000 mg (of dried venom). A range of 200–600 mg for specimens 125–155 cm in length has also been reported. Spawls and Branch (1995) state from 5 to 7 ml (450–600 mg) of venom may be injected in a single bite.
In humans, a bite causes rapid and conspicuous swelling, intense pain, severe shock and local blistering. Other symptoms may include uncoordinated movements, defecation, urination, swelling of the tongue and eyelids, convulsions and unconsciousness. Blistering, bruising and necrosis may be extensive. There may be sudden hypotension, heart damage and dyspnoea. The blood may become incoagulable with internal bleeding that may lead to haematuria and haematemesis. Local tissue damage may require surgical excision and possibly amputation. Healing may be slow and fatalities during the recovery period are not uncommon.